Prototype testing: The complete guide for 2024

Jack Wolstenholm
November 4, 2023
Prototype testing: The complete guide for 2024

Imagine crafting a product experience so intuitive and engaging that it feels like a natural extension of your users' daily lives.

That’s the goal of prototype testing, a pivotal stage in designing software, websites, and apps. Think of it as giving your design a test run and pinpointing potential issues before they happen.

Whether you're sketching out low-fidelity prototypes that capture the basic essence of your idea or diving into high-fidelity prototypes that mirror the final product, prototyping is a powerful tool that challenges, validates, and refines your concepts. It's about making mistakes, learning quickly, and building better products, faster.

This guide is your roadmap to prototype testing in 2023. We’ll cover everything you need to know, including the benefits and limitations of prototype testing, when and how to test a prototype, and the best tools you can use to do so effectively.

What is prototype testing?

Prototype testing is a critical phase in the product design and development process, where designers and developers validate their concepts before full-scale production. This UX research method involves evaluating a working model, or prototype, of a product to gauge its functionality, design, and user experience.

This prototype can range from a simple sketch on paper to an interactive digital model. During the testing phase, potential users or stakeholders take the prototype for a test drive. They are given a range of actions and tasks to perform within the prototype environment, mimicking real-life use cases.

You gain crucial insights as you watch users maneuver through the prototype and record their responses and reactions. This process reveals how effectively the product satisfies user requirements, identifies areas where it doesn’t quite hit the mark, and pinpoints opportunities for enhancements.

The purpose of prototype testing is to ensure that the final product aligns with both the creator's intentions and the end user's expectations.

It bridges the gap between a concept's initial vision and its real-world application. When you refine and validate concepts through prototype testing, you’re better equipped to launch products that resonate with your target audience, meet market demands, and drive revenue.

A brief history of prototype testing

Prototype testing has evolved significantly over the centuries. Its roots can be traced back to the 16th century with Italian artist and engineer Leonardo da Vinci, who pioneered the concept of modeling new ideas on paper by sketching designs of diverse machines.

The concept of prototyping took a significant leap forward in the 1980s with the advent of rapid prototyping techniques, primarily through the emergence of 3D printing. This innovation marked a paradigm shift, drastically reducing the time and cost associated with creating prototype models. Rapid prototyping became integral to system design and was known for its substantial benefits in reducing project risks and costs.

Today, prototype testing is an essential tool across various industries. It allows for a comprehensive examination of a product's design and functionality, from its size and shape to its internal mechanics. The rapid nature of modern prototyping techniques enables the swift construction of working models, facilitating immediate user feedback and iterative improvement. 

Benefits of prototype testing

The primary advantage of testing prototypes is the ability to consistently refine products so that they better cater to user requirements. But the perks don't stop there. Other benefits of prototype testing include:

Identifying design issues

Picture this: You launch your product only to discover that users can't easily navigate to the 'sign up' call-to-action — a gateway to growing your user base. This design oversight can limit user engagement and growth, becoming a complex issue to fix once your app is operational. The best strategy to identify and fix such hidden pitfalls in your design is through prototype testing.

When you evaluate your prototype before introducing new functionalities, you can make crucial modifications early, ensuring a smoother user journey and a more effective product.

This early detection of potential problems — whether in usability, aesthetics, or functionality — allows you to address them before you go to market with the finished product.

Testing your assumptions

Suppose you're contemplating whether placing the sign-up button in the top-right corner will make it more noticeable compared to its current position on the left. This scenario is ideal for employing prototype testing, particularly A/B testing. Testing will help you validate or challenge your assumptions and focus your design efforts effectively.

It sharpens your focus and makes the outcomes of your tests more relevant and actionable. To verify your assumptions, conduct tests to answer critical questions like whether users can smoothly navigate the website or app and complete essential actions.

Gathering crucial user feedback early

Nothing will frustrate you more than realizing post-launch that users find your app confusing or unappealing. Prototype testing safeguards against this, as it allows you to gather critical user feedback early. This early intervention provides a reality check and ensures your design resonates with your intended audience.

Prototype testing helps you understand how real users interact with your design, what features they love, and what might be causing them frustration. By engaging with users at this early stage, you get key insights that can shape your product to better meet their needs and expectations.

Getting stakeholder buy-in

Suppose you're torn between two product options: one offering a shorter user journey but requiring more development time, and another with a longer user journey but quicker to build. You believe the first option is more user-friendly, but the board might lean towards a quicker solution.

A well-executed series of prototype tests can provide the evidence you need to sell decision-makers on the best option. Prototypes illustrate the product’s key concepts and functionalities, making it easier for stakeholders to visualize and understand the final deliverable before time and resources are invested in building it.

For instance, during testing, you might discover that users are more likely to lose interest in the lengthier option and express a preference for a more efficient user journey. With this real user feedback and data, you're no longer relying on instinct. This evidence empowers you to confidently present your case to decision-makers in the C-
Suite and advocate for the option that truly serves your users — and your business – best.

Related: Free stakeholder interview template

Saving money

You wouldn’t want to watch your hard-earned money go down the drain due to avoidable design flaws or user experience missteps. By testing prototypes early on, you're investing resources now to save significantly more down the line.

Think of it this way: finding and fixing a design issue during the prototyping phase is cheaper than making changes to a fully developed product. Plus, by ensuring that your product’s design meets user needs from the start, you reduce the risk of costly redesigns or market failures post-launch.

Limitations of prototyping testing

While prototype testing is essential to product development, it does have limitations, including:

Incomplete user feedback

Prototype testing often involves a limited user group, which might not represent your entire target audience. This means the feedback you receive, while valuable, may not fully capture the diverse needs and responses of all potential users.

Time & resource consumption

Although prototype testing can save costs in the long run, it requires an initial investment of time and resources. If not managed properly, this process can drag on, slowing down your overall product development process. It may also drain resources needed for other aspects of development.

Over-reliance on prototypes

It's easy to fall into the trap of over-refining a prototype based on feedback, leading to multiple iterations without progressing to actual product development. Striking a balance is essential to ensuring you're not stuck in a perpetual cycle of testing.

User bias

Users interacting with a prototype know it's not the final product. This awareness might influence their feedback, making them more forgiving of certain issues or more critical of others simply because they know it's a test environment.

Related read: How do incentives impact bias in UX research?

Scope creep

During prototype testing, there’s a good chance new ideas and features will emerge from the feedback you receive. Watch out for scope creep — where the project's goals start expanding beyond the initial objectives, potentially leading to delays and increased costs.

When to use prototype testing

Given the benefits and limitations discussed above, it’s clear that not every situation calls for a prototype test. Here’s when this research method is most beneficial:

Early concept validation

When you're turning ideas into tangible designs, prototype testing is essential. This stage is less about polish and more about concept validation. It helps you understand if the basic premise of your product resonates with potential users and if it's worth pursuing further.

Feature testing & refinement

As you add features to your product, prototype testing becomes increasingly important; it helps ensure each new element integrates seamlessly and enhances the user experience. This is the stage where you fine-tune details, ensuring every addition works as intended and adds real value. Testing helps you check if your intended audience finds the features intuitive and useful.

Pre-market testing

Just before launching, conducting a final round of prototype testing can offer the insights you need to go-to-market with confidence.

It's a final checkpoint to ensure everything functions as expected and meets user expectations, helping to anticipate and mitigate any potential market challenges.

Iterative development

In an agile development environment, prototype testing is a continuous process. Each product iteration should undergo testing to confirm improvements and respond to ongoing user feedback. This approach keeps the product evolving in line with user needs and market trends.

Common use cases & examples

Now that you know when to use prototype testing, let’s take a closer look some examples of common use cases:

Functionality testing

A common scenario is testing the functionality of a specific feature within an app or website. For instance, if you're developing a photo-editing app, prototype testing can be used to assess the user-friendliness and effectiveness of new editing tools before they are fully integrated.

User experience (UX) refinement

In UX refinement, prototypes help in evaluating the overall user experience. For example, a streaming service might test a prototype of its new user interface to see how easily users can navigate through movie categories or find their watchlist.

Overhauling user interface (UI)

Let’s say an online bookstore decides to revamp its website's user interface to make it more engaging and easier to navigate. Prototype testing is used to try different thematic designs and layouts, ensuring the new interface is both aesthetically pleasing and user-friendly.

Accessibility testing

This involves ensuring that your product is usable by people with various disabilities. An example here would be testing a website's prototype with screen reader software to ensure it is accessible to visually impaired users.

Performance testing

In performance testing, prototypes assess how well a feature or application performs under different conditions. For instance, a gaming app developer might use prototype testing to gauge the app's response time and stability during high-traffic periods.

Interactive elements testing

Testing interactive elements of a website or app is crucial for engagement. An e-commerce site, for instance, might test a prototype of a new interactive feature like a 3D product viewer to understand how it influences the user’s buying decision.

How to test a prototype

Testing a prototype effectively requires a structured approach, ensuring that feedback is relevant and actionable. Let's break down the process into clear steps:

Define your goals

Start by clearly defining what you want to achieve with the testing. Are you testing usability, functionality, or the overall user experience? Setting clear objectives helps create a focused testing plan.

Your prototype testing goals should be specific to ensure you get actionable results.

For instance, rather than think, "I need to test my prototype to check this box," frame it as "I need to determine if users can easily locate details on car financing options and complete the financing application form."

Choose the right prototype

Depending on your testing objectives, decide whether to use a low-fidelity prototype (like paper sketches or wireframes) for basic layout and functionality tests or a high-fidelity prototype (more detailed and interactive) for more advanced usability and experience testing.

Low-fidelity prototypes are ideal during the early stages of product design. They can help you experiment with your initial design and discover which layout resonates most with your users. Use high-fidelity prototypes during the final stages of the design process to test things like user flow, visual elements, and information architecture.

Choose a user testing method

Selecting the right testing method is crucial for capturing valuable user feedback. Decide between remote or in-person testing based on your objectives, development stage, and available tools.

Consider moderated tests for more guided insights or unmoderated ones for natural user interaction, balancing these choices with your resources, timeline, and budget. It's also possible to mix methods, such as conducting unmoderated remote tests, to suit your specific needs.

Select and recruit your participants

Initially, you might start with internal testing involving colleagues or select customers who are familiar with your product. This approach can be useful in the early stages of design. However, for a more comprehensive understanding, recruit a diverse mix of participants, including current users and those unfamiliar with your product.

Tools like Great Question can streamline the recruitment process, helping you quickly find the right participants, apply screener surveys, manage incentives, and more to ensure a relevant participant base for effective prototype testing.

Create a prototype test

Running a successful prototype test is about guiding users through an experience that mirrors real-world use. You should set clear tasks for your users. For example, if you're developing a travel planning app, design a scenario where users need to search for a destination, select flights, and book accommodations.

This approach helps focus on the user experience, not just the app's features. Always ask specific questions to gain actionable feedback on usability.

Facilitate the test

As participants navigate your prototype, observe their actions and listen to their feedback. It's essential to create an environment where they feel comfortable sharing their honest opinions. Avoid leading them or offering solutions — let them interact naturally.

Analyze & document

By the end of the testing process, you will likely have qualitative and quantitative data to analyze. Compile this data, including observations and feedback, looking for patterns or recurring issues.

This data will inform the decisions you make throughout design iterations.

Best practices for prototype testing

To maximize the benefits of prototype testing, follow these best practices:

  • Before testing begins, clarify what you want to learn from the prototype
  • Begin testing early in the development process and continue at various stages
  • Keep your prototype detailed enough to give a realistic sense of the product but not so complex that it distracts from the key aspects you're testing
  • Recruit participants who represent your target audience
  • Place users in scenarios that mimic real-world use
  • Assign clear, well-defined tasks for your test participants to complete
  • Create an environment where participants feel comfortable giving candid feedback

5 of the best prototype testing tools

Prototype testing software can significantly streamline the process of gathering insights and refining your product. Here's a look at five of the best options available in 2023:


UXtweak is a versatile tool that enables you to thoroughly assess user interactions with your prototypes, making it easier to evaluate design flows at an early stage. Its compatibility with popular design tools like Figma and Invision allows for effortless importation of existing desktop prototypes.

You can also create interactive prototypes directly in the UXtweak editor. Its comprehensive recording features, including screen, voice, and face recording, ensure that you capture every user insight during the testing process.


Lookback offers the flexibility of conducting unmoderated usability tasks to gain a deeper understanding of how users interact with your product. With features like touch indicators for taps and gestures, audio, and a face cam, Lookback provides a comprehensive view of user experiences.

Lookback fosters team collaboration with timestamped notes and chats. It also boasts compatibility with numerous prototyping platforms, from Adobe and Figma to Axure and InVision.


Maze integrates with popular design tools like Adobe XD, Figma, and Sketch, streamlining the testing process. Its sophisticated filtering capabilities enable you to delve deep into demographically rich data, ensuring you focus on the most valuable insights. Maze simplifies the analysis phase by offering data-rich reports that highlight key metrics, saving you time and making it easier to present conclusive findings to stakeholders.


Lyssna integrates with Figma, allowing you to utilize real user feedback to refine your designs efficiently. It offers two test types: free flow for exploratory design phases and task flow for assessing goal-driven interactions.

Lyssna elevates the user experience by permitting custom instructions or follow-up questions, which are displayed alongside your designs. The software also boasts real-time data visualizations, including heat and click maps, path analysis, and completion metrics, streamlining the analysis process.

Optimal Workshop

Optimal Workshop enables the swift creation and execution of studies for prototype testing, making it an integral part of rapid design sprints. Its user-friendly setup facilitates continuous learning and retesting, accelerating product development. The tool offers easy-to-interpret data visualizations, providing clear insights for both teams and stakeholders regarding user perceptions of your product.

Popular prototyping tools to know

What you use to test a prototype might not be the same tool you use to create the prototype itself. Here's a quick overview of some popular prototyping tools (many of which integrate with the testing tools mentioned above):


Figma is a cloud-based tool known for its collaborative nature, allowing multiple users to work on a design simultaneously. It offers a range of interactive features for creating detailed prototypes.


InVision offers a range of efficiently crafted tools, enabling the rapid creation and sharing of functional prototypes. This platform has features, including an intuitive vector drawing tool, reusable components that can be updated across the entire site, and a suite of tools for crafting animations and dynamic visual elements.

Adobe XD

Part of the Adobe Creative Suite, Adobe XD stands out for its smooth integration with other Adobe products. It's a comprehensive tool for wireframing, designing, and prototyping, offering both basic and advanced functionalities.


Webflow is unique for its ability to prototype and launch websites without coding and is popular among designers who prefer visual development. It combines design, animation, and content management features.


Sketch is renowned for its simplicity and efficiency in designing interfaces. It allows for the site-wide application of reusable elements, enhanced by a smart layout feature that automatically adjusts their dimensions based on the content they contain.

The bottom line

Prototype testing isn't just a step in the design process; it's a journey toward UX excellence. Each prototype you test, each assumption you challenge, and each piece of feedback you incorporate brings you closer to a product that meets and exceeds expectations.

The greatest products are born from relentless curiosity and the willingness to evolve.

So, embrace prototype testing not as a task but as an opportunity to learn, innovate, and create something remarkable. Embrace the best practices and tools at your disposal, and let genuine user feedback be your compass. Your journey in product design and development is a sea of endless possibilities — keep exploring, keep building, and most importantly, keep testing.

Jack is the Content Marketing Lead at Great Question, the end-to-end UX research platform for customer-centric teams. Previously, he led content marketing and strategy as the first hire at two insurtech startups, Breeze and LeverageRx. He lives in Omaha, Nebraska.

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