Focus groups: The complete guide for 2024

Jack Wolstenholm
November 16, 2023
Focus groups: The complete guide for 2024

Simply launching new products isn’t enough. You need the unvarnished truth and insights that you can only unearth by engaging directly with the end-users whose lives your product is set to transform. That’s where focus groups come in handy.

These intimate discussion forums are not just about gathering data; they're about connecting the dots between customer expectations and your creative vision. They offer a real-world testing ground where your ideas meet the unfiltered opinions of the market — a blend of brutal honesty and invaluable perception.

Harnessing the power of focus groups could be the difference between a product that resonates and one that simply exists. Ready to tap into this wellspring of knowledge? In this guide, we’ll lay out the ins and outs of focus groups, from benefits and limitations to know, to best practices to follow, and top tools to consider.

What is a focus group?

A focus group is a qualitative research method where a small, diverse group of people comes together to discuss and provide feedback on a specific product, service, or business concept. This group consists of participants deliberately selected because they represent the broader customer base or target demographic. The discussion occurs in a controlled environment, often led by a skilled moderator who guides the conversation to elicit rich, in-depth insights.

The purpose of a focus group is to tap into the collective psyche of the target audience, revealing the nuances of consumer behavior and preference that are not always apparent. This information is instrumental in shaping strategies, making informed decisions, and ultimately refining your products.

Why are focus groups important?

Focus groups are crucial for several reasons, particularly in a world where understanding the nuanced preferences of consumers can make or break a product's success. Here's why they remain a staple in research:

Depth of insight

In a focus group, you unravel layers of consumer thinking that surface-level data often misses. You'll uncover the 'whys' behind their choices, hearing firsthand the rational and irrational factors that guide their decisions. This depth of insight is your key to crafting products and services that resonate deeply with your audience's core desires and needs.

Real-time feedback

In a focus group setting, you capture feedback as it unfolds, giving you immediate reactions that are as fresh and authentic as possible. You watch and listen as your audience engages with your product or concept, offering you the kind of instant, direct response that surveys can't. This real-time feedback allows you to swiftly identify strengths and weaknesses, allowing you to adjust and refine on the fly.  

Clarification & probing

In focus groups, you have the unique advantage of delving deeper into consumer feedback, as you can ask for clarification or probe further into responses on the spot. This immediate inquiry helps you unravel the layers behind initial reactions, offering a clearer picture of what your audience truly thinks and feels. You can explore not only the surface-level 'what' but also the underlying 'why' of participant opinions, sharpening the insights you gather.

Idea generation

Focus groups serve as fertile ground for idea generation, where you can harvest the collective creativity of your participants. As discussions unfold, one person's thought can spark another's imagination, leading to a brainstorming session that's both organic and rich with potential. You'll find that participants often build on each other's suggestions, co-creating solutions and ideas that may not have surfaced in a more traditional, less interactive setting.


When you engage directly with a concentrated sample of your target market, you gain valuable insights without the expense of wider-scale quantitative research. The feedback and ideas generated can help you refine your product or service early on, potentially averting costly missteps post-launch. This makes focus groups a smart financial choice for gaining qualitative insights, especially when your resources are limited, but the need for in-depth understanding is high.

Limitations of focus groups

Despite their many benefits, focus groups have limitations to consider. The major drawbacks of focus groups include:

Moderator influence

The presence and approach of a moderator can significantly shape the discussion in a focus group. A moderator's biases and mannerisms may inadvertently lead participants, influencing their responses or stifling certain opinions, which can skew the data.


If a focus group is not managed carefully, the phenomenon of groupthink can emerge, where the desire for harmony or conformity results in an irrational or dysfunctional decision-making outcome. Individuals may self-censor or change their opinions to align with the group, potentially masking their true feelings and leading to less honest feedback.

Sample size

Focus groups typically involve a small number of participants, which can raise questions about the representativeness of the data. The views expressed may not accurately reflect the larger target audience or population, limiting the generalizability of the findings.

Privacy concerns

The group setting of a focus group can impact participants' willingness to share sensitive or personal information, which can be a particular limitation when discussing private or stigmatized topics. Participants may hold back details that they would otherwise share in a one-on-one setting, like a user interview.

When to use focus groups

Here are some specific instances where running a focus group makes sense:

Concept development

In the early stages of creating a product, it's critical to align with user expectations and desires. Focus groups enable you to present multiple concepts and observe not just the preferences but also the thought processes of potential users. As they debate and discuss the merits and drawbacks of each concept, you'll gain insights into what features are most appealing and what concerns might arise.

Usability feedback

Usability is a cornerstone of UX research, and focus groups provide a forum where users can collectively interact with a prototype or product. Observing users as they navigate the interface and discuss their experiences as a group brings to light shared difficulties and usability barriers. It also allows for the exploration of how different users perform the same tasks differently, which can be essential for identifying which aspects of a product need simplification or enhancement.

Feature evaluation

When considering adding new features or modifying existing ones, focus groups can be instrumental in gauging users’ reactions. Users can discuss the perceived utility of new features, potentially comparing them to existing alternatives, and provide feedback on how they might fit into their daily workflow or lifestyle. This collective assessment can save you from investing in features that don't address users' needs or fail to improve the overall user experience.

Experience mapping

A product’s user journey is rarely linear, encompassing various stages and emotional states. Through focus groups, you can map out these journeys with a group of users who bring diverse perspectives to the table.

You'll identify critical touchpoints and moments of delight, frustration, or confusion. This collective mapping can highlight opportunities for enhancing the overall experience and pinpointing pivotal moments for user retention.

Common focus group use cases & example questions

Below are common use cases for focus groups in UX research, along with example questions you can use to facilitate discussion and gain deeper understanding:

Exploring initial reactions & first impressions

Use case: Assessing initial user reactions to a new app design or website layout.

Example questions:

  •  What are your first thoughts when you see this interface?
  •  Can you describe how you feel about the layout and design elements presented?

Understanding user needs & desires

Use case: Identifying the key features users want from a new productivity tool.

Example questions:

  • What features do you find most valuable in the productivity tools you currently use?
  • What tasks do you wish were easier or more intuitive to accomplish with these tools?

Testing usability & user interaction

Use case: Evaluating how users interact with a prototype and if they encounter any usability issues.

Example questions:

  •  How easy was it to complete the task using this prototype?
  •  Were there any points where you felt confused or uncertain about what to do next?

Related read: The complete guide to prototype testing

Understanding user needs & pain points

Use case: Before designing a product, it's crucial to identify what users truly need and the problems they face with current solutions. For instance, you can use focus groups to understand user frustrations with a legacy software product — and how a challenger might disrupt the market.

Example questions:

  • Can you describe a recent experience where [current product] did not meet your needs?
  •  What are the most significant challenges you encounter when using the app?
  •  Have you experienced any difficulties while using our app?

Gathering feedback on user experience

Use case: Collecting feedback on the overall user experience of an e-commerce website.

Example questions:

  • How would you describe your shopping experience on our website?
  •  What could we improve to make your experience more enjoyable and efficient?

Feature prioritization and road mapping

Use case: Determining which features to prioritize in the development roadmap.

Example Questions:

  • Of the features we've discussed, which do you feel should be developed first, and why?
  • Which of these features do you think will have the most positive impact on your daily use?

Focus groups for UX research vs. market research

Focus groups are commonly used in both UX research and market research, so it’s important to understand how they differ in their goals and content focus. In UX research, focus groups concentrate on how users interact with a product or service, with a strong emphasis on functionality, usability, and overall user satisfaction. The discussions typically revolve around users’ direct experiences with a product, their challenges, their needs within the context of using the product, and their emotional responses to it.

On the other hand, market research focus groups aim to understand broader market trends, consumer preferences, brand perceptions, and purchasing behaviors. These sessions are designed to gather insights that inform marketing strategies, product positioning, and market segmentation.

The two also differ in their end goals. UX research is primarily about improving the user's experience to foster engagement and retention, aiming to create a user-friendly product. On the contrary, market research often seeks to maximize a product’s market potential, focusing on driving sales, entering new markets, or enhancing brand recognition.

How to recruit focus group participants

When recruiting participants for a focus group, you’ll want to ensure your group is representative and engaged. Here’s how to get started:

Define your criteria

Start by establishing clear criteria for participants. These should be based on the goals of your focus group and may include demographics, behaviors, product usage patterns, and any other relevant factors that align with your UX research objectives.

Choose your method

You can recruit through social media, UX research platforms, email campaigns, or even customer databases. For more niche products, you might consider specialized forums or groups where potential users are likely to engage.

Get started: Recruit research participants in Great Question.

Screen candidates

Use a screener survey or interview to ensure potential participants meet your criteria. Tools like Great Question have an integrated screener feature that makes participant management easy by filtering candidates according to your predefined attributes.

Incentivize participation

Offer an appropriate incentive for the time commitment and effort participants will be making. Incentives can range from financial compensation to gift cards or even early access to the product or service you're testing.

Ensure diversity

Aim for a diverse group that can provide a wide range of perspectives. This means balancing gender, age, ethnicity, and other relevant factors within your participant pool.

Confirm & remind

Once you’ve selected participants, confirm their participation and send reminders as the focus group date approaches. Reminders minimizes no-shows and ensures that everyone is clear on the logistics.

How many people should be in a focus group?

The ideal size for a focus group is typically between 6 and 10 participants. With fewer than six, you risk not having enough diversity of opinion to yield meaningful insights, potentially skewing the data towards the views of a few. On the other hand, more than ten can lead to logistical challenges, dominating voices that can drown out others, and difficulty managing the discussion effectively.

How much do focus groups pay in incentives?

The incentive for participating in a focus group can vary widely depending on several factors, such as the length of the session, the complexity of the topic, the specificity of the participant criteria, and the geographical location.

For standard consumer focus groups, incentives can range from $50 to $125 per session. For professional or highly specialized groups — for example, those requiring expertise in a medical field or high-level business knowledge — participants might be offered $150 to $500 or more.

In addition to monetary compensation, incentives might also include gift cards, products, vouchers, or service subscriptions. The key is to offer a reward that reflects the value of the time and input the participants provide.

How to run a focus group

Running a focus group takes a series of structured steps to ensure the session is efficient and yields valuable insights. Here’s a succinct guide on how to run a focus group:

Define your research scope

Clarify what you aim to achieve with the focus group. Are you exploring initial reactions, seeking feedback on a specific issue, or trying to uncover deeper user motivations? The scope will influence how you structure the session and what outcomes you consider successful.

Determine your focus group questions

Develop a list of questions and prompts that are open-ended, neutral, and designed to encourage detailed responses. They should be ordered logically, from general to specific, and be flexible enough to allow for follow-up questions based on the discussion. This guide will keep the conversation on track and ensure you cover all the necessary points.

Recruit your participants

Use the criteria you've set to select participants who best represent your target audience. Employ recruitment tools, screen for qualifications, and offer appropriate incentives for participation.

Related read: How do incentives impact bias in UX research?

Choose a moderator

Select a skilled individual to lead the focus group. A good moderator is crucial, as they facilitate the discussion, encourage participation, and keep the session moving forward.

Set up the environment

Arrange a comfortable and neutral space that is conducive to open discussion. Ensure that the setting is free from distractions and that all participants can see and hear each other clearly.

Conduct the focus group

  • Begin with a welcome and introduction, explaining the purpose of the focus group and the general topics of discussion
  • Lay down some ground rules for the session, such as one person speaking at a time and respecting each other’s views
  • Start the discussion with broader questions before moving on to more specific topics
  • Use your discussion guide, but also be flexible to follow interesting threads as they arise
  • Encourage quieter members to share their thoughts and manage more dominant personalities to maintain a balanced conversation.
  • With participants' consent, audio or video record the session. This will be invaluable for reviewing and ensuring you capture all feedback.
  • End with a summary of what was discussed and thank the participants for their time and insights

Analyze the data

Transcribe the recording and analyze the data, looking for common themes, unique perspectives, and actionable insights.

Report findings

Compile the findings into a report that summarizes the insights, provides direct quotes for illustration, and suggests actionable next steps based on the group’s feedback.

Online vs. in-person

The choice between online and in-person focus groups depends on the research goals, budget, participant availability, and the nuances of the topic at hand.

Online focus groups are conducted using video conferencing tools, like Zoom or Google Meet. They tend to be more convenient for participants and researchers alike, often resulting in lower costs and easier scheduling. They’re ideal when the target demographic is geographically dispersed or when the subject matter can be discussed virtually without the need for physical product interaction.

In-person focus groups occur in a physical location where all participants gather together. This traditional format allows for richer, more nuanced discussions with the benefit of non-verbal cues such as body language and facial expressions. In-person sessions are particularly appropriate when the research topic requires physical interaction with a product or when you want to create a more controlled environment for the discussion.

How to analyze focus group data

Analyzing focus group data is a multi-layered process that begins with organizing the collected information. Start by transcribing the recordings to capture the full breadth of the conversation. This transcription becomes the basis for your analysis, which you should read through multiple times to familiarize yourself with the data.

The next step involves coding the data, which is the process of categorizing and tagging segments of the text with codes that represent themes or concepts that have emerged from the discussion. Look for patterns, frequency, and intensity of comments related to your research questions.

Once coding is complete, analyze the data for major themes, insights, contradictions, and anomalies. Craft a narrative that weaves together the significant findings and paints a picture of the collective experience of the group. Use direct quotes to illustrate key points and substantiate the themes you’ve identified.

Finally, consider the implications of these findings in relation to your research objectives. Evaluate how they align with or challenge your expectations and existing knowledge. The analyzed data should guide decision-making, inform strategy, and provide actionable recommendations based on the participants' experiences and perspectives.

Best practices for conducting focus groups

To ensure your focus group is a success and garners the valuable insights you’re seeking, here are some best practices to keep in mind:

  • Know what you want to achieve with your focus group to guide the discussion effectively
  • Recruit a diverse group that reflects the target audience of the research
  • Ensure the moderator is experienced in facilitating discussions and managing group dynamics
  • Whether online or in-person, make sure participants feel at ease to encourage openness
  • Maintain confidentiality of participant information and abide by ethical research standards
  • Keep the session within the scheduled time frame to respect participants' commitments
  • Ensure all participants have the opportunity to share their thoughts
  • Look for patterns and themes in the data, and consider all perspectives
  • Offer appropriate compensation for participation to value the participants' time and insights

5 of the best focus group tools

Here are five of the top focus group tools that cater to various aspects of the process, from participant recruitment to data analysis:

Great Question

Great Question is an all-in-one platform UX research platform that simplifies various methods — including focus groups — from recruitment to synthesis. You can define the research goal clearly and set a participant limit to ensure focused, manageable discussions. The tool offers flexibility in choosing incentive methods, including money or gift cards, to motivate participation.

Great Question simplifies participant management by allowing invites through email and incorporating screener questions to ensure you reach the right demographic. It also provides functionality to track participant engagement, such as confirmation of calendar invites and sending reminders.


Respondent allows you to find and connect with verified consumers and professionals eager to provide insights on everyday products. You can tailor your search for participants by job title, industry, or skill set to get the most relevant feedback for your UX needs. Its seamless integrations with tools like Zoom and Google Calendar, alongside survey platforms such as SurveyMonkey, enhance the research experience. offers a web-based platform that enables you to conduct online focus groups quickly and affordably, typically within 48 hours. With access to a global pool of over 20 million potential participants, the platform enables researchers to explore existing markets and branch into new ones efficiently. The suite of integrated tools simplifies every step, from recruiting participants to sharing insights, while eliminating the need for travel and reducing overall complexity.


Collabito presents a streamlined, browser-based platform for conducting video focus groups, closely mirroring the experience of traditional, in-person sessions. Moderators can facilitate real-time discussions without the need for participants to install specialized software. Additionally, Collabito allows moderators to prepare questions beforehand, record sessions automatically, and offer options for replay or download for thorough analysis.


FocusGroupIt stands out as a swift, user-friendly, and cost-effective solution for obtaining qualitative feedback online, with the capability to launch a focus group in under 15 minutes. By simply sharing a secure group link across social networks, customer lists, or attaching it to surveys, you can effortlessly invite participants and kickstart discussions. This tool offers the flexibility to moderate dynamic conversations spanning hours, days, weeks, or even months.

The bottom line

A well-executed focus group can open a portal to the minds of your users, offering a tapestry of insights that quantitative data alone can't weave. Proper planning, execution, and analysis transform mere conversations into a strategic compass, guiding product evolution with the consumers’ voices as its North Star.

As you harness the collective wisdom of your carefully selected participants, remember that the magic lies not just in asking questions but in crafting a space where answers flow freely. With the insights we've shared, you're now poised to conduct focus groups that don't just gather data but turn user stories into stepping stones for innovation.

Jack is the Content Marketing Lead at Great Question, the end-to-end UX research platform for customer-centric teams. Previously, he led content marketing and strategy as the first hire at two insurtech startups, Breeze and LeverageRx. He lives in Omaha, Nebraska.

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